Category: Latin literature

158. On the Nature of Things, by Lucretius, c. 50 BC

158. On the Nature of Things, by Lucretius, c. 50 BC

Plot:   Primitive atomic theory explained in poetry, or as Lucretius himself puts it: “the dulcet strains of poesy, coated with the sweet homey of the Muses .. to engage your mind while you gain insight into the nature of the universe and the pattern of its architecture” (page 54-55)

My edition is the Penguin Black Classic translated by Ronald Latham (ISBN 0140440186)

My thoughts: 

Lucretius’ work largely outlines the tenets of Epicurus – basically that we should seek a happy pleasant life without fearing death, which is the end of both body and soul, everything returning to atoms. His atomic theory is not quite in line with modern thinking; he has them whizzing around in perpetual motion in an unlimited universe. Some of his physics is also slightly awry: we see things because everything constantly emits a series of images in the nature of ‘films’ which enter our eyes and can bounce back from mirrors, pass through glass, etc.

As a physicist, Lucretius is a much better philosopher. Following Epicurean thought, he acknowledges the Gods but refuses to believe they influence our lives, as they were too busy living the good life. Mankind assigns them actions and powers in superstitious awe of what is really natural phenomena and ignorance of the causes of these.

Nor does he believe in Hell, or any sort of continuance of life after death – these too are superstitions which blight Man’s short lifespan with fear and dread. All is reduced to atoms to be recombined elsewhere. “To none is life given in freehold, to all on lease” (page 125).

He would also have been a fervent UFO watcher too, as “it is in the highest degree unlikely that this earth and sky is the only one to have been created and that all those particles of matter outside are accomplishing nothing … our world has been made by nature through the spontaneous and casual collision and the multifarious, accidental, random and purposeless congregation and coalescence of atoms whose suddenly formed combinations could serve on each occasion as the starting-point of substantial fabrics – earth and sea and sky and the races of living creatures. On every ground therefore you must admit that there exist elsewhere other congeries of matter similar to this one which the ether clasps in ardent embrace … other earths and various tribes of men and breeds of beasts.”   (pages 91-92)

Lucretius doesn’t limit himself to philosophy and physics. After asserting that heaven and earth, sun, stars and moon are not products of divine inspiration but a result of natural forces, he also writes of the creation of species (all originally down to spontaneous generation from Mother Earth) and the development of human civilization from caveman to his current time, which he admits is still in development.

Perhaps his only downfall is his dismissal of love, warning his readers to beware of its traps.

Favourite lines/passages:

LOL moment as Lucretius demonstrates that mind and spirit are both composed of matter, for “when the nerve-racking impact of a spear gashes bones and sinews, even if it does not penetrate the seat of life, there ensues faintness and a tempting inclination earthwards …”  (page 101)

But finally we should all just relax and be content, as devotees of Epicurus like Lucretius

“The requirements of our bodily nature are few indeed, no more than is necessary to banish pain. To heap pleasure upon pleasure may heighten men’s enjoyment at times. But what matter if there are no golden images of youths about the house, holding flaming torches in their right hands to illumine banquets prolonged into the night? What matter if the hall does not sparkle with silver and gleam with gold, and no carved and gilded rafters ring to the music of the lute? Nature does not miss these luxuries when men recline in company on the soft grass by a running stream under the branches of a tall tree and refresh their bodies pleasurably at small expense. Better still if the weather smiles upon them and the season of the year stipples the green herbage with flowers.”  (page 60-61)

Personal rating:  As you can see from the size and number of quotes appended above, Lucretius quite tickled my fancy. Epicurean philosophy must suit me. 6.

The reads in between: 

Odd Thomas by Dean Koontz. Diner cook Odd can see the dead, but can he save his girl and his hometown? Enjoyable pageturner and first volume in a series.

Death at the President’s Lodging by Michael Innes. One of Martin Edward’s 100 classic crime stories – not so entertaining and a bit of a cheat as a whodunnit. First half is a hard slog as Innes’ Inspector Appleby is a very close-lipped, almost disinterested detective, sharing very little with the reader. The suspects are barely discernible from each other and the reveal is complicated and unlikely.

Asterix and the Big Fight by Goscinny and Uderzo. One of the best of Asterix’s adventures, largely due to the druid Getafix’s amnesia, crazy appearance, and childlike happiness as he brews explosive potions, doubled by the arrival of a second druid suffering the same affliction (ie getting flattened under a menhir thrown by Obelix!)

Next : More from Cicero.

Advertisements
157. Selected letters by Cicero (68 to 43 BC)

157. Selected letters by Cicero (68 to 43 BC)

Plot:  A collection of some of Cicero’s private letters to family and friends, starting from before his exile to a few months before his death.  My version is again the Penguin Classic edition (ISBN 0140444580) translated by D. R. Shackleton Bailey.

My thoughts:  The first collection of letters I’ve read in this project –  and I was always told never to read other peoples’ mail, too! 😊

About half of Cicero’s letters are addressed to his good friend Atticus, a school friend who was also related by marriage (Cicero’s brother Quintus married Atticus’ sister Pomponia).

The most interesting letters are those which report or reflect on the tumultuous events happening in Rome during Cicero’s later years. Firstly Cicero is exiled according to a new law introduced by his enemies, for executing Roman citizens without trial (with regard to the Catiline conspirators discussed in an earlier post). He is eventually allowed to return to Rome but shortly after, civil war breaks out between the supporters of Pompey and Caesar. Cicero realises that his beloved Republic is doomed  – Caesar’s forces are stronger and Pompey is failing to plan or act effectively. However, Cicero feels he must honour his obligation to Pompey who helped in his return from exile (although he did little to prevent the exile in the first place)

After the dust settles, Cicero is pardoned by a victorious Caesar; but despite this, and although he was not involved in the conspiracy, Cicero gives his wholehearted praise to Brutus and Cassius (Caesar’s assassins). A year later, the long standing animosity between Cicero and Marc Antony leads to Cicero’s death as he sides with Brutus and Cassius in a further civil war against Marc Antony, the turncoat Lepidus and Caesar’s son, Octavian.

The more intimate family letters are also revealing, particularly as a inconsolable Cicero mourns the death of his  beloved daughter Tullia.

More about Cicero and the events of these years to come in future writings from Caesar himself (The Civil War), Plutarch (Parallel Lives) and Suetonius (Lives of the Twelve Caesars)

Favourite lines/passages:

“Spend time in honest, pleasant and friendly company. Nothing becomes life better, or is more in harmony with its happy living. I am not thinking of physical pleasure, but of community of life and habit and of mental recreation, of which familiar conversation is the most effective agent; and conversation is at its most agreeable at dinner-parties …. because at dinner parties more than anywhere else, life is lived in company.”    Cicero to Papirius Paetus, Jan 43 BC (page 214)

Diversions and digressions:

Without the benefits of a postal service, the Romans relied on travelling friends or slaves to deliver letters to their correspondents. Even some of Cicero’s letters admit he didn’t know where the intended recipient was actually living at the moment the letter was dispatched.

Personal rating:  Taken as a whole, probably a 5.

Next :  On the Nature of Things by Lucretius, one of the books read by Cicero. Very easy to play Six Degrees of Separation in the Ancient World.

 

156. Poems by Catullus (c. 60-55 BC)

156. Poems by Catullus (c. 60-55 BC)

Plot:  An assortment of personal poems – love and hate, sometimes together.

I had two versions available to me for Catullus :  the Penguin classic translated by Peter Whigham (0140441808)  and the Oxford World’s Classics edition by Guy Lee (0192835874)

My thoughts:

I must confess I am not a poetry fan – and the more self-indulgent and ugly the poems, the less I like them. So Catullus does not rate highly with me and I was glad to reach the last page.

Catullus is reminiscent of Sappho, in that he uses his poetry very personally to express his love, lust, anger and hate, to praise his friends and to attack his enemies. His surviving poems are numbered (with some gaps) and organised by length and style, so each poem is different from the next, and the recurrent themes (his love for ‘Lesbia’ and their turbulent affair, his dalliances with other male and female lovers, his insults and his occasional poetic correspondence to friends) are mixed throughout the volume.

Perhaps most memorable are his addresses to “Lesbia” (the Clodia attacked so scathingly by Cicero in court for her promiscuity). Catullus’ feelings for her vary from deep love, to sniping insults at her and her other lovers, to recognising he cannot help but love and hate her, desperately wishing he could rid her from his system.

With two editions to compare, it becomes very apparent that an especially beautiful phrase that captures my heart is as much courtesy of the translator as the author : compare Catullus’ ode (#4) to his favourite yacht now beached and decaying on the bank:

“drawn up here, gathering quiet age”  (Whigham)  versus  “grows old in quiet retirement” (Lee)

Both are beautiful but Whigham manages to capture something special.

As I have said before, without my own knowledge of the ancient languages, I am reliant on the skill, accuracy and fidelity of the translator; and personal taste also comes into play. Especially with Catullus’ ‘colourful’ language such as on display in #6

“attenuated thighs betray your preoccupation” (Whigham) versus the “fucked-out flanks” (Lee)

There is a small number of short epic-like poems but they lost me. The highly considered #64 starts as a marriage celebration but was overshadowed by jarring tales of death and betrayal from Greek legends : Ariadne abandoned by Theseus after she helps him kill the minotaur, the deaths and destruction during the Fall of Troy, and the unhappy tale of Oedipus.

Favourite lines/passages:

I have reproduced Whigham’s translations of poems 32, 33  and 51 below; not as favourites but to give some idea of what is representative of Catullus  

XXXII

Call me to you

at siesta

We’ll make love

my gold & jewels

my treasure trove

my sweet Ipsithila

When you invite

me lock no doors

nor change your mind

& step outside

But stay at home

& in your room

prepare yourself

To come nine times

straight off together

In fact if you

should want it now

I’ll come at once

for lolling on

the sofa here

with jutting cock

and stuffed with food

I’m ripe for stuffing you

My sweet Ipsithila.

LI

Godlike the man who

sits at her side, who

watches and catches

that laughter

which softly tears me

to tatters, nothing is

left of me, each time

I see her.

… tongue numbed; arms, legs

melting, on fire ; drum

drumming in my ears ; head-

lights gone black.

Her ease is your sloth, Catullus

You itch & roll in her ease

Former kings and cities

Lost in the valley of her arm

XXXIII

Vibennius & son, renowned

among bath-hut pilferers

pere

an adept at massage

fils

of voracious if of hirsute buttocks

why not remove yourselves?

Those manual depredations

are common knowledge

the allurements of those bum-cheeks

a drug on the market

why not remove yourselves?

Personal rating:  3/10

The reads in between: 

  • Death comes as the End : Agatha Christie sets this murder whodunnit in Ancient Egypt around 2000 BC. For once I was well on top of the murderer, but since so many got knocked off along the way, there were not many suspects left to choose from. 😊
  • The Martian : Andy Weir’s first novel describes the survival efforts of an astronaut left behind on Mars, and the rescue options NASA comes up with. Saw the movie last year. Looking forward to getting his next book Artemis about a bank heist on the Moon.
  • Mike : Another early Wodehouse about cricket and private schools. Entertaining if you love … well, Wodehouse or cricket.

Next :  Selected letters from Cicero.

 

155.  The Conquest of Gaul, by Julius Caesar (58-50 BC)

155. The Conquest of Gaul, by Julius Caesar (58-50 BC)

Plot:  Caesar’s reports on his battles to subdue the Gaulish tribes, push back Germanic invaders  and reconnoitre the southeast coast of Britain.

My version is the Penguin Black Classic translated by S. A. Handford and revised by Jane Gardiner (ISBN 9780140444339)

My thoughts:

What could have been propaganda reads fairly honestly, even if written in the third person. Caesar’ success as a field General is largely based on his speedy decisions and quick marches to get into position before his enemies are aware, and yet in cases where his underlings make bad decisions, he writes it off as fortunes of war.

What is mindboggling is the sheer numbers of combatants involved. At one point, Caesar has the 53,000 survivors of a siege sold off as slaves to one bidder. On another occasion, the Gaulish supreme commander Vercingetorix raises 269,000 reinforcements from across all the Gaulish tribes. (Perhaps not too surprising as Caesar describes the Gaulish custom of torturing the last man to arrive at a muster)

Favourite lines/passages:

My favourite story is the two rival centurions Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus, who had a history of acrimonious competition for promotion against each other. In battle with the Gauls, Pullo baits Vorenus into following him over the rampart into the heaviest part of the fighting with the enemy, which results in them each rescuing the other from overwhelming numbers and returning unhurt to their lines after killing many enemies (page 125)

Diversions and digressions:

Some siege terms which might come in handy later :

Fascines : bundles of sticks or brush used to fill in trenches, allow crossing of boggy ground, or make temporary barricades

Mantlets : light portable wicker shields large enough to cover 2-3 soldiers, light enough to be easily lifted and manoeuvred.

Redoubts : walled enclosures or earthworks surrounding a more permanent fort

Personal rating: Not as riveting throughout as I had hoped, but some impressive and historically valuable descriptions of battles and tactics. 5/10.

Also in that year:  And for a few pages at least, the known world briefly turns it’s attention to a soggy island in north west Europe.

The read in between:  Needful Things by Stephen King.  A curio shop opens in the small town of Castle Rock, Maine, stocking various items, each of which is the very heart’s desire of someone in that town. And the price of these treasures is surprisingly affordable. But along with the ticketed price, the proprietor just wants each customer to play a small practical joke on a neighbour. What can be the harm in that? Like the villain, this one is a little long in the tooth but still compelling.

Next :  The poetry of Catullus.

 

154. Selected Political Speeches by Cicero (between 66 and 44 BC)

154. Selected Political Speeches by Cicero (between 66 and 44 BC)

Plot:  Moving beyond his defendant’s role in the murder court, these speeches show Cicero employing his oratorical talents to win political points for himself or others. My copy is again a Penguin Black Classic translated and introduced by Michael Grant (ISBN 0140442146)

The first speech is in support of Cnaeus Pompeius (Pompey) being given sole conduct of the war against King Mithridates VI of Pontus (Anatolia). While Pompeius seems to have had an outstandingly successful military career in Spain and Gaul, as well as defeating the Third Slave uprising led by Spartacus and the effective eradication of rampant piracy throughout the Mediterranean, Cicero’s outrageous flattery style is so OTT as to cast him as the Hero of the Ages:

“not so much an envoy of Rome as some visitant from Heaven itself”  (page 54)

“surely some special design of the Gods must have brought him into being for the express purpose of successfully terminating all the wars of our time”  (page 55)

The second chapter is a set of four speeches revealing a conspiracy by Catilina, a former corrupt governor of Tunisia and unsuccessful runner for Consulship on several occasions, who now decided to grab power in Rome by more direct and violent methods, plotting mass assassinations including Cicero. Cicero’s spies discovered the plot, and Cicero calls him out in public in front of the Senate.

“The darkness of night no longer avails to conceal your traitorous consultations”   page 79

Although obviously preferring that Catilina be executed as in the good old days, Cicero publicly calls on him to leave Rome immediately so that “the city will be relieved of those copious pestilential dregs of the community who are your accomplices … a rabble of elderly down-and-outs, rustic debauchees, bankrupt country bumpkins…”.   Once Catalina leaves Rome, Cicero celebrates that “Rome has  … brought up and spewed forth this pestilential object from its system”.

This action has later repercussions on Cicero, as another of his enemies –  Clodius (who has suffered defeat and embarrassment from Cicero’s successful court orations) instigates Cicero’s exile for his role in executing the Catilinian ringleaders. Recalled to Rome by Pompeius after sixteen months, Cicero first defends a young man Marcus Caelius on charges of stealing from, and plotting to poison Clodius’ sister Clodia (a supposedly sexually rampant and completely immoral beauty who numbered the poet Catullus among her admirers), and then defending Clodius’ killer Milo after their gangs came to blows on the Appian Way.

These later speeches are more interesting not so much for the oratory (still with their liberal doses of irony, sarcasm and outrageous exaggeration and flattery) as for the background events : the failure of the Republic’s Senate and Assembly to control the mob violence and murders in Rome, the formation of the First Triumvirate and the shifting allegiances of key players around those three men. Cicero continued to support Pompeius, but once Crassus is killed in battle with the Parthians. Pompeius and Caesar would not stay friends for long.

The penultimate speech in this collection occurs after the Civil War between Pompeius and Caesar, and has Cicero praising the victor Caesar for his generosity in forgiving supporters of Pompeius (including Cicero himself) but also beseeching Caesar to continue to repair the economic and social life of Rome. It also seems that Caesar also had some warning or presentiment that his life was in danger from assassins at this time (46 BC), two years before his death.

The last speech in this book is known as the First Phillipic, the first of fourteen attacks by Cicero on Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony). This first one is apparently more moderate than subsequent ones, and in remarkably restrained style for Cicero, but nevertheless sealed his fate as an enemy of Antony – obviously Marc couldn’t take even mild criticism. Cicero would be killed by agents of the Second Triumvirate (Antony, Octavian and Lepidus), his head and hands cut off, and his tongue pierced with a hairpin by Fulvia, wife of Marc Antony and the widow of Clodius.

My thoughts:   Cicero is ranked by many as the ultimate orator, so I was expecting words and thoughts touching the sublime. Instead most of his speeches, particularly the politically motivated ones, are so completely exaggerated as to be laughable. Certainly he employs humour, wit and sarcasm throughout his speeches, but he is so lavish in praise of his clients that it becomes almost farcical. Of course, reading in translation from an ancient language would undoubtedly raise some vagaries, but this is stratospheres of level above what a modern day defending counsel would ever contemplate. It will be interesting to compare the style of his other works, particularly his other famous attacks on Marc Antony, and his personal letters.

Favourite lines/passages:

Firstly something we can all appreciate

“… For there is no other occupation on earth which is so appropriate to every time and every age and every place. Reading stimulates the young and diverts the old, increases one’s satisfaction when things are going well, and they are going badly, provides refuge and solace. It is a delight in the home, can be fitted in with public life; throughout the night, on journeys, in the country. It is a companion which never lets me down.”    Page 156

And for the sheer bitchiness, Cicero’s ‘praise’ of Clodia

“I never imagined I should have to engage in quarrels with women. Much less with a woman who has always been widely regarded as having no enemies, since she so readily offers intimacy in all directions”   page 184

“ every sort of pornographic rumour fits in perfectly with that lady’s reputation”  page 208

Personal rating:   Fun to read, hard to take seriously, yet interesting for the background events and personalities involved. 6.

The read in between:  The Innocence of Father Brown by G. K. Chesterton : ingenious short stories solved by a unusually bland detective and written in almost surreal style. Not my cup of tea, but ticks off my first read of Martin Edwards’ published list The Story of Classic Crime in 100 Books.

Next :  The Conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar.

153. Murder trials (speeches) by Cicero, (c.80-43 BC)

153. Murder trials (speeches) by Cicero, (c.80-43 BC)

Plot:  Speeches for the defense made by Cicero in the Roman courts, defending accusations of murder. The Penguin edition is translated by Michael Grant (ISBN 9780140442885)

My thoughts: Cicero, even at the beginning of his career as a public speaker, gives such strong voice to his arguments. Although we don’t get to hear the prosecution’s argument directly in each case; Cicero takes each argument and tears them apart quite convincingly. There is also a lot of documented evidence for the nature of Roman political life and legal practice in his speeches.

The first case, In defence of Sextus Roscius, (80 BC), the young Cicero successfully defends a man whose father has been murdered by the very men who are prosecuting him in order to retain the extensive estates owned by the dead man, put on sale after the victim is posthumously put on the proscribed list of state enemies. Cicero paints the villains, a father and son related to the victim and both gladiators, and their highly placed conspirator, as ruthless assassins and opportunists who are not satisfied with their ill-gotten possessions, that they must secure their position by having the innocent and genuine owner of lands worth six million sesterii, condemned and executed.

The second trial (66 BC) has Cicero, now a praetor, defending Aulus Cluentius Habitus, against the charge of killing his stepfather Oppianicus. Most of Cicero’s speech is actually directed against the prejudice which his client carries from a famous earlier case where Oppianicus supposedly hired men to poison Cluentius, and after they were caught and found guilty, Oppianicus’ subsequent trial as the instigator of the plot became notorious for attempts to bribe the judges. Cicero convincingly swings the argument to suggest that only Oppianicus himself could have the means or motive to offer bribes. (It was later suggested that Cicero deliberately and knowingly misled the judges throughout this case.) He then paints such a repulsive picture of the defendant’s mother Sassia who Cicero insists is behind the whole plot to have her son Cluentius discredited and executed, that would easily match the worst excesses of any Greek tragedy.

The third trial presented is the defense of Gaius Rabirius, accused of executing a political radical and rebel Saturninus and his followers, thirty seven years after the fact, is just as much a defense of the state’s ability to act outside the law in times of emergency – such as internment without trial, as it is the defense of one man. Still a topical issue today, perhaps most recently with Guantanamo Bay. In this hearing, Cicero comes against Julius Caesar as one of the judges, and their relationship over the years is chequered to say the least.

The last case is presented, not in a court, but in private in Julius Caesar’s own home, defending King Deiotarus on a charge of plotting to assassinate Caesar himself. Cicero flatters Caesar to the heavens, and as always diverts suspicion of the alleged crime, painting it instead as a vindictive accusation against an innocent defendant by a despicable prosecutor and relative.

A disturbing aspect to these trials is the ability of the defendant to call his slaves as witnesses, where it was normal practice to torture them sufficiently before questioning to ensure they would tell the truth.

Favourite lines/passages:

There are crackingly good lines on almost every page. Here are a few from the first case:

“I would rather be crushed by the weight of the duty I am trying to perform than be accused of disloyalty or irresolution..”          page 36

“On the other hand you have my client, whom they have left with no possession in the world except utter ruin”               page 37

“Nature itself cries out against any suspicions of such horror”       page 62

Personal rating: 5/10

Kimmy’s rating : O tempora, O mores!  (How times have changed, and customs with them!)
Also in that year:
Since 150 BC:

Rome’s influence continues to grow as they indulge simultaneously in a Third Punic War against Carthage (149-146 BC) and a fourth Macedonian war (149-148 BC), razing the former and absorbing the latter as a province. They also control most of Greece and Spain, and create provinces in Africa and Gaul. Internally the Romans put down several slave uprisings, the third led by Spartacus, and establish a silk trade with China.

In the last years of the Roman Republic, Gaius Julius Caesar, Marcus Grassus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey) form a triumvirate rulership in 60 BC. More on this later.

In other news, the Nazca culture is developing in Peru.

Next :  More Cicero. This time his Political Speeches.

 

149. Adelphoe (The Brothers) by Terence (160 BC)

Plot:  Two brothers, Aeschinus and Ctesipho, are split to be raised separately, but remain good friends. Ctesipho is raised by his poor hardworking father Demea on their farm, while Aeschinus is fostered to his rich uncle Micio in the city. The two fathers have very different philosophies of fatherhood : Micio allows Aeschinus a free hand in all his adventures,  and pays the bills for his excesses to win his love; while Demea tries to force  sobriety and responsibility onto Ctesipho.

Then one night, Aeschinus breaks into a slave-owner’s house to abduct a girl, and bring her back to his house. Next door, another girl he seduced and has promised marriage is about to give birth to their child. Has Micio’s laxity raised a wild and uncontrollable boy, or is there more to Aeschinus’  actions than first appears?

The last play in the Penguin edition of Terence’s Comedies (014044324X)

My thoughts:  A more mature story than his earlier plays, but still lifted from an earlier Greek play, The Brothers is really more about the two older brothers Demea and Micio, and the manner with which they view their role as fathers.

A shorter play than the others makes for more sudden entrances and exits by the players, giving it the feel of a more modern comedy. The conniving slave is not the centre of attention, and although Demea may seem miserly and authoritarian to many of the characters, his apparent Scrooge-like transformation towards the end contains a humorous and gentle sting for his easygoing brother Micio.

Favourite lines/passages:

Demea’s final speech hits the right note:

Demea: “I wanted to show you, Micio, that what our boys thought was your good nature and charm didn’t come from a way of living which was sincere or from anything right or good, but from your weakness, indulgence and extravagance. Now Aeschinus, if you and your brother dislike  my ways because I won’t humour you in all your wishes, right or wrong, I wash my hands of you – you can spend and squander and do whatever you like. On the other hand, being young, you are short-sighted, over-eager and heedless, and you may like a word of advice or reproof from me on occasion, as well as my support at the proper time, well I’m here at your service.” page 386.

But I also can’t begrudge Micio’s sheer love for his adopted son either

Micio : “My son, I have heard the whole story; I understand for I love you, so all you do touches my heart.”   page 371

Personal rating:  7/10

Also in that year: Judas Maccabeus, leader of the Jewish revolt, dies fighting the Seleucids.

The reads in between:  Hercule Poirot digs for the truth in the archaeological Murder in Mesopotamia. Christie often accompanied her husband on his digs so had some local colour to add to this murder mystery. I correctly suspected the secondary villain and guessed the murderer, but more by choosing the most unlikely suspect that true deduction.

Also read Brandon Sanderson’s The Final Empire (#1 in the Mistborn series) – deserves the high praise it gets on Goodreads  – sort of a cross between Lord of the Rings, Mission Impossible and Spiderman – that should peak your curiosity. Not only is it the first in a series but each of Sanderson’s series are loosely connected in a much bigger universe and he plans to have 30-40 books across the worlds, beside his work on finishing Robert Jordan’s Wheel of Time series. A busy lad!

Next : How Rome became great : Polybius’ Histories, or, The Rise of the Roman Empire